Gender and Politics
Fall, 2019 - Instructor: Jim Bolner, Sr. -

I. An Introduction to Politics (and Gender Politics)
   What is Politics?
   Defining and Understanding Gender
   The “Gender Spectrum”
   Male and Female Roles in Politics

II. Gender and Politics in History
    The Sources of Male Dominance
    Male Dominance in History
    Male Dominance in the Professions, Religion, and Society

III. The Struggle for Gender Equality
     The Feminist Spirit in the United States
     The History of Woman Suffrage
     The Nineteenth Amendment
     Title IX and the Struggle for Gender Parity

IV. Gender Inequality and Discrimination: Facts
     Systemic Gender Inequality
     The Gender Pay Gap
     The Gender Education Gap
     The Gender Professional Gap

V. Feminism in the United States
    The Feminist Movement
    The Abortion Issue
    Sexual Harassment and the #M2 Movement

VI. Gender and Politics: Voting and Holding Office
      Gender, Political Values, and Voting Behavior
      Gender in Federal Office
      Gender in State and Local Office
      Will We Have a Woman President?

VII. The Future of Gender and Politics
       What Comes After Legal Equality?
       What Do Women Want? What Do Men Want?
       The Future of Gender in American Politics

Course Resources

The Rutgers University Center for American Women and Politics

The Nineteenth Amendment -- from the U.S. Constution Annotated

The Equal Rights Amendment --from the Digital Public Library of America

"Votes for Women: A Century of Progress" --from The Atlantic [A most impressive collection of articles.]

The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Politcs (2013)

William L. Mace, "Gender Politics: Why Do Men Oppose Gender Equality" --from Psychology Today, October 22, 2018

Emily's List

Pamela Paxton et al., "Gender in Politics" --from The Annual Review of Sociology, (2007)

Understanding Gender --from Gender Spectrum

Azam Kamgulan, "Islam and Women's Rights: Overcoming Inequality" --from Center for Inquiry (June, 2018)

"Women Suffrage: When and Where Did Women Earn the Right to Vote?" --from

Gender Issues Websites --from

Gender Spectrum --A guide to understanding gender

Gender Discrimination: U.S. Supreme Court Cases --from

Gender Discrinination: U.S. Supreme Court Cases --from the Cornell Legal Information Institute

Sex-based Discrimination --from the U.S. Equal Emplloyment Opportunity Commission

Feminist Jurisprudence --from the Cornell Legal Information Institutei

National Women's Law Center

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

5 Facts About Women's Suffrage and the 19th Amendment -- from Action Institute

Equal Pay Act of 1963 -- from the Avalon Project

Federal Legislation Relative to Gender Discrimination --from

"80 Nations Set Quotas for Female Leaders.  Should the U.S. Be Next?" --from The Washington Post, March 29, 2019

"History of Women Suffrage in the United States" -- from

"Gender Differences in American Voting Behavior" -- from

Gender Equality in the World -- from The Telegraph (United Kingdom)

-- A Gender Research Resource From Norway

Gendered Innovations -- from Stanford University

Title IX -- Federal constitutional legal protection against discrimination based on sex in institutions which receive federal funds.
Overview of Title IX -- from the Justice Department
Grove City College v. Bell (1984) --The Supreme Court of the U.S. held that Title IX applied only to an institution's financial aid
department; this was reversed by the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1984.

League of Women Voters

Timeline of Major Supreme Court Decisions on Women's Rights -- from the ACLU

Michal Lev-Ram,
"Even Melinda Gates Has Struggled to Get Her Husband Bill to Do His Fair Share"
Fortune Magazine, April 22, 2019

The Center for American Women and Politics --from Rutgers University

The United Nations and Women

The Equal Rights Amendment --Current status of ratification

The Guttmacher Institute --"The Guttmacher Institute is a leading research and policy organization committed
to advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in the United States and globally."

Women's Rights
--from the ACLU

"A Changing World: Global Views on Diversity, Gender Equality, Family Life and the Importance of Religion"
--from the Pew Research Center

"Road to Equality" --from Google Arts and Culture

Amy Harmon,  "Which Box Did You Check? --from The New York Times, May 29, 2019

The Road to Equality --from Google Arts and Culture

The Equality Act of 2019 --from the Congressional Record

Equality Act of 2019 --from Vox

The #MfeToo Movement --from Wikipedia

The Making of Male Dominance --Documentary from Duke University

Maya Salam, "College Educated Women Are the Workplace Majority, but Still Don't Get Their Share" --from The New York Times,
July 2, 2019

Motoko Rich, "Craving Freedom, Japan's Women Opt Out of Marriage" --from The New York Times, August 3, 2019

Amelia Thompson-Deveaux, "Americans Say They Would Vote for a Woman, But..." --from

Alec Tyson, "The 2018 Midterm Vote: Divisions by Race, Gender, Education" --from the PEW Research Center, November 8, 2018

"How Sex and Gender Influence How We Vote" --from - November 13, 2018

Georgina Waylen, et al.," Introduction: Gender and Politics: A Gendered World, A Gendered Discipline" --from

Dan Levin,  "In an All-Gender Cabin, Summer Campers 'Don't Have to Hide',"  --from The New York Times,  August 22, 2019

Gender Sprectrum --"Gender Spectrum’s mission is to create a gender-inclusive world for all children and youth. To accomplish this,
we help families, organizations, and institutions increase understandings of gender and consider the implications that evolving views
have for each of us."

Women Offie Holders in the United States --from the Rutgers University Center for American Women and Politics

Jonathan Lambert, "No 'gay gene': Massive study homes in on genetic basis of human sexuality" --from

"The Global Gender Gap" --from the World Economic Forum (

"Gender Differences in Voter Turnout" --from the Rutgers Center for Amerian Women and Politics

John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and he Subjection of Women (1859 edition)

Lisa Lerer, "The Gillibrand Test Case for Women in Politics" --from The New York Times, September 1, 2019

KK Ottesen, "Tennis Icon Billie Jean King on Fighting for Equal Pay for Women: 'Pressure is a Privilege" --from The Washington Post, September 3, 2019

Dhruthi Shah, "Virginia Couples Challenge Laws Requiring Them to Declare Their Race," --from the BBC, September 9, 2019

Ritu Prasad, "Are Women Biased Against Women Candidates?" --from

Violence Against Women Act of 1994 --from Wikipedia
Office On Violence Against Women

Rick Rojas and Vanessa Swales, "18 Transgender Killings This Year Raise Fears of an 'Epidemic'," --from The New York Times, September 27, 2019

Anna Brown, "5 Key Findings About LGBT Americans" --from the PEW Research Center (2017)

Lee Airton, Gender: Your Guide --from Google Books (2018)

"Timeline of Women's Legal Rights in the United States (Other Than Voting)" --from Wikipedia

"Timeline of Women's Suffrage in the United States" --from Wikipedia

Nina Totenberg, "Showdown Over LGBTQ Rights Hits the Supreme Court" --from NPR

The Declaraton of Sentiments, Seneca Falls Conference, 1848 --from

"On Point" [A discussion of the female population in the U.S. and its political consequences... --from PBS, October 9, 2019

Nick Switanek, "Minority Rule: Why Aren't Our Elections More Participatory?" --from Commonweal magazine

"The Gender Gap: Voting Choices in Presidential Elections," --from the Rutgers Center for American Women and Politics

David Leonhardt, "How to Reduce Abortion"  --from The New York Times, October 17, 2019

"The Equal Rights Amendment" --from the Alice Paul Institute

Meera Jagnnathan, "As Esther Duflo Wins the Nobel Prize in Economics, Here's the Uphill Battle Women Face in the Field"

 "Anti-Abortion Crusaders" --from Frontline, December 15, 2017



"The 1619 Project" --from The New York Times Magazine,  August 14, 2019

Marianne Williamson, "American Doesn't Have a Gun Crisis; It Has a Culture Crisis" --from the Washington Post, September 10, 2019